Доклад WADA о применении допинга российскими спортсменами на ОИ в Сочи
Российские власти покрывали систематическое применение спортсменами допинга на Играх-2014, — об этом сообщается в отчете комиссии ВАДА. Сегодня Агентство представляет итоги расследования в отношении России
Образцы допинг-проб, хранившиеся в московской лаборатории с 10 сентября по 10 декабря 2014 года, были подделаны путем замены мочи.
Некоторые образцы с игр в Сочи содержали повышенное содержание соли, что подтверждает информацию о ее добавлении в пробы. Решение по манипуляциям с допинг-пробами принимал заместитель министра спорта РФ Нагорных, Мутко был в курсе.
Материалы по теме
«Интерфакс»: Лаборатории в Москве и Сочи применяли методы, позволявшие покрывать российских спортсменов, принимавших допинг, говорится в докладе комиссии Международного антидопингового агентства (ВАДА) о применении допинга на Олимпиаде в Сочи. В докладе зафиксировано мнение ВАДА, согласно которому московская лаборатория, «защищая принимавших допинг российских спортсменов, действовала в рамках безотказной, государственной системы». «Лаборатория в Сочи применяла уникальную систему подмены допинг-проб, которая позволяла российским спортсменам, применявшим допинг, выступать на Играх», — говорится в документе.
Система использования допинга в спорте РФ работала на ЧМ-2013 по легкой атлетике в Москве, универсиаде в Казани, ЧМ по водным видам. Система действовала с конца 2011 года до августа 2015-го.
Независимая комиссия Всемирного антидопингового агентства (ВАДА) под руководством Ричарда Макларена нашла доказательства поддержки Министерством спорта РФ и Центром спортивной подготовки (ЦСП) допинговой программы в российском спорте. Об этом говорится в тексте доклада, который приводится на сайте ВАДА «Министерство спорта руководило, контролировало и проводило манипуляции с результатами анализов спортсменов и обменивало их при активном участии и при помощи ФСБ и Центра спортивной подготовки (ЦСП) сборных команд России в Москве и Сочи», — об этом, как сообщает ТАСС, сказано в отчете.
Overall Outcomes of the Independent Investigation
Upon embarking on its investigation the IP quickly found a wider means of concealing positive doping results than had been publically described for Sochi.
The Sochi Laboratory urine sample swapping scheme was a unique standalone approach to meet a special set of circumstances. Behind this lay a greater systematic scheme operated by the Moscow Laboratory for false reporting of positive samples supported by what the IP termed the disappearing positive methodology. What emerged from all the investigative sources was a simple but effective and efficient method for direction and control under the Deputy Minister of Sport to force the Laboratory to report any positive screen finding as a negative analytical result. The disappearing positive!
The Disappearing Positive Methodology was used as a State directed method following the very abysmal medal count by the Russian Olympic athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. At that time, Sochi had already been designated as the next Winter Olympic venue. A new Deputy Minister of Sport, Yuri Nagornykh, was appointed in 2010 by Executive Order of then Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin. Nagornykh, also a member of the Russian Olympic Committee («ROC»), reports to the Minister of Sport, Vitaly Mutko. Minister Mutko has continuously held this appointment since the Presidential Order of President Medvedev in May 2008. He is also the chairman of the organising committee for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia and is a member of the FIFA Executive Committee.
Deputy Minister Nagornykh was critical to the smooth running of the Disappearing Positive Methodology. Representing the State, he was advised of
every positive analytical finding arising in the Moscow Laboratory from 2011 onwards. Nagornykh, as the Deputy Minister of Sport, decided who would benefit from a cover up and who would not be protected.
In total violation of the WADA International Standard for Laboratories («ISL») all analytical positives appearing on the first sample screen at the Moscow laboratory were reported up to the Deputy Minister after the athlete’s name had been added to the information to be supplied. The order would come back from the Deputy Minister «SAVE» or «QUARANTINE». If the order was a SAVE the laboratory personnel were required to report the sample negative in WADA’s Anti-Doping Management System («ADAMS»). Then the laboratory personnel would falsify the screen result in the Laboratory Information Management System («LIMS») to show a negative laboratory result. The athlete benefited from the cover up determined and directed by the Deputy Minister of Sport and could continue to compete dirty.
The Disappearing Positive Methodology worked well to cover up doping except at international events where there were independent observers such as the IAAF World Championships held in Moscow in 2013 and the Winter Olympics and Paralympics in Sochi in 2014.
Through the efforts of the FSB, a method for surreptitiously removing the caps of tamper evident sample bottles containing the urine samples of doped Russian athletes had been developed for use at Sochi. The IP has developed forensic evidence that establishes beyond a reasonable doubt some method was used to replace positive dirty samples during the Sochi Games. The bottle opening method was used again in December 2014 to cover up some dirty samples, which WADA had advised would be removed from the Moscow Laboratory for further analysis.
Unlike the method used during the Sochi Games, the Disappearing Positive Methodology was in operation at IAAF World Championships («IAAF Championships»). The IP also has evidence that sample swapping occurred after the IAAF Championships in respect of positive samples.
The IP investigation, assisted by forensic experts, has conducted its own experiments and can confirm, without any doubt whatsoever, that the caps of urine sample bottles can be removed without any evidence visible to the untrained eye. Indeed, this was demonstrated in front of Professor Richard McLaren. As will be noted later in this report, evidence of tampering could be detected on bottle caps from Sochi and the December 2014 sample seizure by WADA with the use of microscopic technology.
The fundamental building block of the Sochi scheme was in place. The FSB was intricately entwined in the scheme to allow Russian athletes to compete while dirty. The FSB developed a method to surreptitiously open the urine bottles to enable sample swapping. This keystone step cleared the way for the development of a clean urine bank as a source from which to draw urine samples for swapping. The coordinating role for this aspect of the State run system was that of Irina Rodionova. Rodionova currently sits as the Deputy Director of the Center of Sports Preparation of National Teams of Russia («CSP») (in Russian «ЦСП»), which is a subordinate organisation of the Russian Ministry of Sport.
She was a staff member of the Russian Olympic Committee («ROC») during the Sochi 2014 Games as the head of the Monitoring and Management of Medical Anti-doping Programs Department and also on the ROC staff for the London 2012 Games as the head of the Medical and Research Department.
Athletes, on instruction, would collect what were thought to be clean urine samples outside of the wash out periods for any PEDs they were using. Rodionova would receive these samples from athletes and arrange for their freezer storage at the CSP. Dr. Rodchenkov would test some of these clean urine samples to ensure they were in fact not positive.
Once the clean urine bank was fully populated by the chosen athletes, the samples were then secretly transported by the FSB from Moscow to the FSB storage freezer in the FSB building located next to the Sochi Laboratory. The bank of clean urine sat in storage awaiting the swapping program at Sochi when required.
The swapping occurred largely as described in The New York Times article. Dr. Rodchenkov provided credible evidence that the A and B bottles would pass through the «mouse hole» from the aliquoting room inside the secure perimeter of the Sochi Laboratory into an adjacent operations room, outside the secure perimeter. From there, FSB officer Evgeny Blokhin would take the B bottles and leave the operations room. In the meantime, clean urine from the athletes who had given their sample at a Sochi doping control venue would be withdrawn from the freezer at the FSB building and brought over to the operations room to complete its thawing there. The B sample bottle would be returned to the operations room by FSB Blokhin, open and with the cap removed. The dirty urine disposed of and replaced by clean urine would be put in the A and B bottles. The stopper replaced in the A bottle and the B bottle cap screwed back into place; the bottles would be passed back through the mouse hole thereby reentering the secure perimeter of the laboratory aliquoting room ready for clinical bench work the following morning.
Dr. Rodchenkov’s role in the sample swapping scheme included ensuring that the substituted sample was manipulated to match as closely as possible the Specific Gravity (SG) indicated on the original Doping Control Form («DCF») taken at the Sochi venue. This adjustment was accomplished by adding table salt to raise the clean urine SG or distilled water to dilute the clean urine sample so as to closely match the SG number on the DCF.
The veracity of Dr. Rodchenkov’s statements to The New York Times article is supported by the forensic analysis of the IP which included laboratory analysis of the salt content of samples selected by the investigative team. The London WADA accredited Laboratory, at the request of the IP, advised that of the forensically representative samples tested, 6 had salt contents higher than what should be found in urine of a healthy human. The forensic examination for marks and scratches within the bottle caps confirmed that they had been tampered with. Both findings support the evidence of Dr. Rodchenkov.
The Sochi sample swapping methodology was a unique situation, required because of the presence of the international community in the Laboratory. It enabled Russian athletes to compete dirty while enjoying certainty that their antidoping samples would be reported clean. Following the Winter Olympics, the scheme to cover up State sponsored doping returned to the Disappearing Positive Methodology described previously.
The first ARD documentary aired in early December of 2014. The concerns of the international sporting community led to the appointment of the IC, one of the Commissioners of whom was subsequently to become the IP. In connection with the creation of the IC, but not by way of direction of the IC, Dr. Olivier Rabin from WADA asked the Moscow laboratory to prepare for a visit during which the samples stored in the laboratory would be packed up and shipped out of the country for storage and further analysis.
The anxiety level of personnel in the laboratory rose because of the pending WADA visit. The Disappearing Positive Methodology was used during the summer of 2014. As a consequence, Dr. Rodchenkov knew that he would have dirty B samples from that period. A number of dirty samples had been collected and reported as negative, and were stored in the laboratory. The solution to the problem in part was to destroy thousands of samples obtained and stored prior to 10 September 2014, being the minimal 90-day period of storage as prescribed under the ISL. However, the massive destruction of samples only got rid of part of the problem. Still to be dealt with were the samples between 10 September 2014 and 10 December 2014.
Dr Rodchenkov prepared a schedule of 37 athletes whose samples were potentially a problem if another accredited laboratory were to analyze them. A meeting was held with Deputy Minister Nagornykh in which the jeopardy of the laboratory was discussed were something not done to deal with the selected samples. The upshot of that meeting was that Deputy Minister Nagornykh resolved to call in the «magicians». That night the FSB visited the laboratory and the next day sample bottles were in the laboratory without their caps. The IP found that these samples all had negative findings recorded on ADAMS.
The IP forensic examination of these bottles found evidence of scratches and marks confirmed tampering. A urine examination of 3 of the samples showed that the DNA was not that of the athlete involved.
Athletics— 139, Weightlifting— 117, Non-Olympic Sports— 37, Paralympic Sport-35, Wrestling-28, Canoe— 27, Cycling-26, Skating-24, Swimming— 18, Ice Hockey -14, Skiing— 13, Football, Rowingboth 11, Biathlon-10, Bobsleigh, Judo, Volleyball— each 8, Boxing, Handball – both 7, Taekwondo-6, Fencing, Triathlon— both 4, Modern Pentathlon, Shooting— both 3, Beach Volleyball, Curling— both 2, Basketball, Sailing, Snowboard, Table Tennis, Water Polo— each 1